The arrival of the space era led to an impressive development of knowledge in the industry of cosmology, i.e. the study of the origin (and the destiny) of the Universe and the formation of the first structures. Born and developed in the optical band, including the use of the Hubble Space Telescope, this industry evolved towards the study of diffuse background radiation, in the microwave band, and large-scale structures evolving on cosmological times, for which observation is key in the infrared and millimetre ranges. Therefore, the observation of space has become critical to the development of knowledge in this industry. Thanks to space missions, the knowledge acquired in the last few years had a strong impact not only within the scientific community, but also on the public opinion, since they entail answers to the key questions on the origin and the end of the Universe.